Heiau, ‘Āina, Lani

Supplementary online materials

All-round horizon profiles


  • The pictures show the entire horizon profile from each site as generated from Digital Terrain Model data by Andrew Smith using his program HORIZON (see p. 88 of the book).
  • The observing position is specified to 10 m: in the case of large sites a more specific indication of the observing position is given.
  • Nearby features too small to show up on the DTM may in fact obscure the more distant horizons shown in the digitally generated profiles. See the catalog in Chapters 6–8 of the book for details.
  • Each profile is available in both JPG and PNG format. The PNG versions, typically about 5 MB, have better resolution but may take some time to download.
  • Azimuths and altitudes are indicated using 1° grids, with thicker lines at 5° intervals. The azimuths are labelled; altitudes (unlabelled) run upwards from 0°. Lines of declination, labelled, are shown at 5° intervals.
Plain profiles
  • These are provided at each site. The darker yellow lines indicate the rising and setting paths of the sun at the solstices (outer lines, December solstice; inner lines, June solstice). The lighter yellow lines indicate its rising and setting path at the equinoxes. The blue line indicates the rising and setting path of the Pleiades, in AD 1600 unless otherwise stated.

Example: plain all-round horizon profile at site WF-AUW-574

Profiles with survey data
  • At sites where total station surveys were carried out, we also include copies of the profiles with survey points superimposed, to demonstrate how well the digitally generated data fit with the actual site data.
  • Survey points may appear below a distant horizon if (as happened quite frequently in the direction of Haleakalā) weather conditions during the survey prevented more distant ridgelines being visible.

Example: all-round horizon profile at site ALE-1, with survey points

The profiles


Profile at WF-AUW-403


Profile at ALE-4


Profile at KIP-307


Profile at MAH-231 with survey points


Profile at MAW-2


Profile at NUU-101

Kaupō (apart from Nu‘u)

Profile at KAU-994 (Lo‘alo‘a)

Profiles not included
  • Profiles have not been included for KIP-80, KIP-394, KIP-424, NUU-1, and NUU-172, because these sites are not considered to be heiau.
  • Profiles have not been included for AUW-6, KIP-115, KIP-410, KIP-728, KIP-1306, KIP-1307, KIP-1317, KIP-1398, MAH-363, NUU-78, NUU-151 (Papakea), NUU-153, NUU-188, NUU-424, KAU-333, KAU-411, KAU-536, KAU-996, KAU-999, and KAU-1001, because these sites were not surveyed.
  • Although total station surveys were undertaken at WF-AUW-100 and NUU-175, profiles with survey points are not included because no horizon points could be measured. At WF-AUW-100 this was because of the sudden onset of cloudy conditions; at NUU-175, the horizon was completely obscured by local vegetation.

Other supplementary on-line materials

Additional figures

Additional tables